Civil society letter supporting India's and South Africa's proposal for a TRIPS Agreement waiver for COVID-19 treatments

The CCPA is proud to sign the letter below from our colleagues at the Third World Network. Endorsed so far by over 350 civil society organizations worldwide, the letter urges WTO member governments to support a proposal from South Africa and India calling for the suspension of the implementation, application and enforcement of certain WTO TRIPS obligations (regarding patents, copyright, industrial design, and protection of undisclosed information) for the treatment, prevention and containment of COVID-19. This initiative would help facilitate a truly global, public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which the current WTO intellectual property rights regime impedes as explained in the letter and the proposal. In the trade chapter of our AFB Recovery Plan, the CCPA called on the federal government to make permanent Canada’s provisions for compulsory licensing of medicines, vaccines and other medical supplies included in Ottawa’s pandemic response legislation. We now call on the Canadian government to back this urgent proposal in Geneva. 

Dear Members of the World Trade Organization,

We the undersigned organisations call on all WTO Members to strongly support the adoption of the decision text proposed by India and South Africa in their proposal for “Waiver from certain provisions of the TRIPS Agreement for the prevention, containment and treatment of COVID19” (Waiver Proposal).

When COVID-19 was declared to be a pandemic, there was overwhelming consensus that to curb the spread of COVID-19, there was an urgent need for international collaboration to speed up product development, scale up of manufacturing, expand the supply of effective medical technologies and ensure everyone, everywhere is protected. There were even calls including from several Heads of State for COVID-19 medical products to be treated as global public goods.

Seven months into the pandemic, there is no meaningful global policy solution to ensure access. Instead, there is an inequality of access to critical technologies that are needed to address the pandemic. Many countries, especially developing and least developed countries struggling to contain COVID-19 have experienced and are facing acute shortages of medical products, including access to diagnostic testing.¹ Furthermore, wealthy nations representing only 13 percent of the global population have locked up at least half the doses of the world’s five leading potential vaccines.²

In this pandemic, the pharmaceutical industry has mainly pursued “business as usual” approaches, entrenching monopolistic intellectual property (IP) controls over COVID-19 health technologies that restrict scale-up of manufacturing, lock out diversified suppliers, and undermine competition that results in lower prices. A few companies, such as Astra Zeneca, have pledged not for profit prices during the pandemic, and yet by maintaining control over these technologies, can unilaterally declare the end of the pandemic and increase prices to maximise profits, even if it undermines international efforts to save lives.³

The COVID-19 Technology Access Pool (C-TAP) launched by WHO (to voluntarily share knowledge, IP and data), has been rejected by the pharmaceutical industry. Instead, companies continue to sign secretive and restrictive licensing agreements. For example, Gilead Sciences’ secret licensing agreements for remdesivir, a medicine that was developed with substantial public funding, are restricted to a few manufacturers of its choosing, thereby preventing low-cost supply to nearly half of the world’s population. Unsurprisingly, there have been global shortages of the medicine, with many developing countries yet to see even a single vial of the treatment exported to them. Given the medicine’s limited effectiveness, we are deeply concerned that such an approach for a safe and effective therapy will exclude even more people from treatment access.

Additionally, emerging intellectual property infringement disputes on COVID-19 technologies threatens to block collaborative research and development and manufacturing of COVID-19 medical products.

These restrictive business strategies have directly translated into exorbitant pricing and profiteering, With entire health systems already overwhelmed by COVID-19 and with governments facing a looming economic crisis, the health budgets of many countries simply cannot sustain highly priced COVID-19 medical products. These realities will also hinder production by any competent manufacturer and impede the full freedom to collaborate, in developing, producing, importing and exporting the needed medical products.

While the TRIPS Agreement contains flexibilities that can promote access, many WTO Members may face challenges in using them promptly and effectively. For instance, compulsory license offers a “product by product”, and “country by country” approach with variations in national laws, whereas the pandemic requires collective global action to tackle IP barriers and facilitate technology transfer. Where the IP barrier is beyond patents, national laws may not provide for sufficient flexibilities. Further, Article 31bis, a mechanism to supply countries with insufficient manufacturing capacity, does not provide an expedited solution and many countries have also opted out of using the mechanism.

Unless concrete steps are taken at the global level to address intellectual property and technology barriers, the abovementioned failures and shortcomings will replay as new medicines, vaccines and other medical products are rolled out. Access will have to be rationed, with devastating effects for public health and global economic recovery.

In a global pandemic where every country is affected, we need a global solution.⁷ Adoption of a Waiver at the WTO level will suspend implementation, application and enforcement of the relevant provisions of the TRIPS Agreement in relation to prevention, containment, and treatment of COVID-19. It enables an expedited, open and automatic global solution to allow uninterrupted collaboration in development, production and supply, and to collectively address the global challenge facing all countries. It’s time for governments to take collective responsibility and put people’s lives before corporate monopolies.

Therefore, we strongly request you to unequivocally support the adoption of the proposed Waiver at the upcoming TRIPS Council meeting.



    1. Commons Network

    2. Curbing Corruption

    3. Friends of the Earth International

    4. GRAIN

    5. Grail Justice and Trade Agreements Network

    6. Health Action International (HAI)

    7. Health Global Access Project

    8. Health Poverty Action

    9. Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy

    10. International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)

    11. International Treatment Preparedness Coalition

    12. Knowledge Ecology International (KEI)

    13. LDC Watch

    14. Médecins du Monde

    15. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Access Campaign

    16. Oxfam

    17. Pan-African International

    18. Peoples Health Movement

    19. People’s Vaccine Alliance

    20. Public Services International (PSI)

    21. Regions Refocus

    22. Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary

    23. Southern African Programme on Access to Medicines and Diagnosis (SAPAM)

    24. Social Watch

    25. Society for international Development

    26. Transnational Institute

    27. Transparency International Health Initiative

    28. Third World Network

    29. Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM)

    30. Womankind Worldwide


    1. Africa Development Interchange Network (ADIN),

    2. African Alliance

    3. Africa Young Positives Network (AY +)

    4. Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development

    5. Asia Pacific Network of People Living with HIV (APN+)

    6. Associação Brasileira de Economia Industrial e Inovação

    7. Building and Wood Workers International Asia Pacific

    8. Comité de América Latina y el Caribe para la defensa de los Derechos de las Mujeres, Latin America y el Caribe

    9. DAWN (Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era), Global South

    10. EEPA, Europe External Programme with Africa

    11. EHNE-BIZKAIA, Euskal Herria, Basque Country

    12. Eurasian harm reduction association, CEECA

    13. European Alliance for Responsible R&D and Affordable Medicines, Europe

    14. Focus on the Global South

    15. Health Action International Asia Pacific

    16. International Treatment Preparedness Coalition Regional Office for Latino America and Caribbean

    17. International Treatment Preparedness Coalition- South Asia

    18. International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, Middle East and North Africa

    19. National Alliance of Women / Asia Pacific Women Watch

    20. NGO Forum on ADB

    21. Network TB people

    22. Pacific Network on Globalisation

    23. Public Service Accountability Monitor (PSAM)

    24. REDCA+ El Salvador, Belize, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama

    25. Red Latinoamericana por el Acceso a Medicamentos (RedLAM)

    26. South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication (SAAPE)

    27. Southern and Eastern Africa Trade Information and Negotiations Institute

    28. The Access IBSA Project, India-Brazil-South Africa

    29. The African Women's Network for Community management of Forests

    30. Treatment preparedness Coalition in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ITPCru)

    31. Yolse, Santé Publique et Innovation


    1. 1:1 diet, Gauteng, South Africa

    2. 100 Percent Life, Ukraine

    3. Access to Medicines Ireland

    4. Access to Medicines Research Group, China

    5. Acción internacional para la Salud AIS, Perú

    6. Action Aid Association, India

    7. Actions against AIDS (Aktionsbündnis gegen AIDS) Germany

    8. Action Governance Forum – AGF, Zambia

    9. Active Citizens Movement, South Africa

    10. Africa Trade Network, Ghana

    11. Africaine de Recherche et de Coopération pour l'appui Au Développement Endogène (ARCADE), Senegal

    12. AIDES, France

    13. AIDS Access Foundation, Bangkok, Thailand

    14. Água Doce - Serviços Populares, Brazil

    15. Alianza por la Solidaridad, Spain

    16. All India Drug Action Network, India

    17. Amabele Project Flamingo, South Africa

    18. Anti Free Trade Agreements Committee, India

    19. APINTLAW (associated program for international law), Indonesia

    20. Apoyo Positivo, Madrid, Spain

    21. Ari's Cancer Foundation, South Africa

    22. Arzte des Welt e.V.I Doctors of the World Germany, Germany

    23. Asia Pacific Network of People Living with HIV (APN+), Thailand

    24. Association Chabab El Borj, Morocco

    25. Associação Brasileira Interdisciplinar de AIDS (ABIA), Brazil

    26. Associação Brasileira de Saúde Bucal Coletiva, Brazil

    27. Association de lutte contre la dépendance ALCD, Mauritania

    28. Associação Mulher lei e desenvolvimento, Mozambique

    29. Asociación por un Acceso Justo al Medicamento, Spain

    30. Asociación Nacional de Profesionales en Enfermería, Costa Rica

    31. Association for Promotion Sustainable Development, Hawaii

    32. Association for Proper Internet Governance, Switzerland

    33. Association for Public Health Teaching, Research and Service, Nigeria

    34. Association Nigérienne des Scouts de l'Environnement (ANSEN), Niger

    35. Association of Physicians for Humanism, Republic of Korea (South)

    36. ATTAC Hungary Association, Hungary

    37. Auditoría Ciudadana de la Deuda en Sanidad (Audita Sanidad), Spain

    38. Australian Arts Trust, Australia

    39. Both ENDS, The Netherlands

    40. Brazilian Association of Public Health, Brazil

    41. Bread for all, Switzerland

    42. Breast Course 4 Nurses (BCN), South Africa

    43. Breast Health Foundation (BHF), South Africa

    44. BUKO Pharma-Kampagne, Germany


    46. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Canada

    47. Cancer Alliance, South Africa

    48. Cancer Association of South Africa (CANSA), South Africa

    49. Cancer Heroes, South Africa

    50. Cancer Patients Aid Association, India

    51. CanSir, South Africa

    52. CanSurvive Cancer Support (CanSurvive), South Africa

    53. Cape Mental Health (CMH), South Africa

    54. CAPRISA - Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, South Africa

    55. Care for Cancer Foundation, South Africa

    56. Childhood Cancer Foundation of South Africa (CHOC), South Africa

    57. CENADEP, République Démocratique du Congo

    58. Center for Health, Human Rights and Development, Uganda

    59. Center for Law, Innovation and Creativity, Northeastern U. School of Law, United States

    60. Center for Policy Analysis on Trade and Health, United States

    61. Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO), The Netherlands

    62. Centre de Recherches et d'Appui pour les Alternatives de Développement - Océan Indien, Madagascar

    63. Centre national de coopération au développement (CNCD-11.11.11), Belgium

    64. Centro de Internet y Sociedad de la Universidad del Rosario ISUR, Colombia

    65. Centro Internazionale Crocevia, Italy

    66. Citizens’ Health Initiative (CHI), Malaysia

    67. Citizens Trade Campaign, United States

    68. Clare Cerfontyne, South Africa

    69. Coordinadora de Organizaciones de Agricultores y Ganaderos (COAG), Spain

    70. Coalición de Tendencia Clasista (CTC-VZLA), Venezuela

    71. Coalition of women living with HIV and AIDS, Malawi

    72. COAST Trust, Bangladesh

    73. Consumer Association of Penang, Malaysia

    74. Consumer Association the Quality of Life, Greece

    75. Co-operative and Policy Alternative Center, South Africa

    76. Coordination Forum of NGOs Working among the Palestinian Community

    77. Council of Canadians, Conseil des Canadiens, Canada

    78. Creative Commons México, México

    79. CTA Autonoma (central de trabajadores de la argentina), Argentina

    80. Dandora Community Aids Support Association, Kenya

    81. Delhi Network of Positive People (DNP+), India

    82. Diabetes SA, South Africa

    83. Difäm e.V. (German Institute for Medical Mission), Germany

    84. Discipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    85. Diverse Voices and Action (DIVA) for Equality, Fiji

    86. Diverse Women for Diversity, India

    87. Division of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Stellenbosch University, South Africa

    88. Doctors Without Borders (MSF), South Africa

    89. Drug Action Forum-Karnataka, India

    90. Ecologistas en Acción, Spain

    91. Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights, Egypt

    92. Ekumenická akademie (Ecumenical Academy), Czech Republic

    93. Epilepsy SA, South Africa

    94. Equidad de Género: Ciudadanía, Trabajo y Familia, Mexico

    95. Environmental Management Trust, Zimbabwe

    96. EQUIT Institute - Gender, Economy and Global Citizenship, Brazil

    97. Equity and Justice Working Group, Bangladesh (EquityBD), Bangladesh

    98. Espace associatif, Morocco

    99. Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    100. Farmacéuticos Mundi, Spain

    101. Federación de Asociaciones para la Defensa de la Sanidad Pública, España

    102. Federación Española de Asociaciones de Estudiantes de Medicina para la Cooperación international (IFMSA-Spain), Spain

    103. FIAN India

    104. Fiji Youth Sexual & Reproductive Health Alliance, Fiji

    105. Foaesp - Forum das Ong Aids do estado de São Paulo, Brazil

    106. FOCO Foro Ciudadano de Participación por la Justicia y los Derechos Humanos, Argentine

    107. Fix the Patent Law, South Africa

    108. Fondation Eboko, France/Congo

    109. Food Sovereignty Ghana, Ghana

    110. Foundation for AIDS Rights, Thailand

    111. Foundation for Integrative AIDS Research (FIAR), United States

    112. FTA Watch, Thailand

    113. Fundación Arcoíris por el respeto a la diversidad sexual, Mexico

    114. Fundación GEP, Argentina

    115. Fundación IFARMA, Colombia

    116. Fundación Karisma, Colombia

    117. Fundación Mexicana para la Planeación Familiar, A. C. MEXFAM, México

    118. Fundación Vía Libre, Argentina

    119. Gandhi Development Trust, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    120. GAT- Grupo de Ativistas em Tratamentos, Portugal

    121. GenderCCSA, Gauteng, South Africa

    122. Gene Ethics Limited, Australia

    123. Gestos HIV and AIDS communication gender, Brazil

    124. Gladiators of Hope, South Africa

    125. Global Health Advocates France, France

    126. Global Justice Now, United Kingdom

    127. Governance Links Tanzania, Tanzania

    128. Group of 80+ South Africa-affiliated Academics, South Africa

    129. Grupo de Articulación y Dialogo, Guatemala

    130. Grupo de Estudos em Economia Industrial, Brazil

    131. Grupo de Incentivo à Vida GIV, Brazil

    132. Grupo de Resistência Asa Branca- GRAB, Brazil

    133. GTP+ Grupo de Trabalhos em Prevenção Posithivo, Brazil

    134. Handelskampanjen, Norway

    135. Health GAP, South Africa

    136. Health Equity Initiatives, Malaysia

    137. Health Innovation in Practice, Switzerland

    138. Health Right Network, Republic of Korea

    139. Hepatitis Scotland, United Kingdom

    140. HIV Legal Network, Canada

    141. Hospice Palliative Care Association (HPCA), South Africa

    142. Human Rights Information and Training Center -HRITC, Yemen, Middle East

    143. Indonesia AIDS Coalition, Indonesia

    144. Indonesia for Global Justice (IGJ), Indonesia

    145. Initiative for Health & Equity in Society, India

    146. Instituto Brasileiro de Análises Sociais e Econômicas, Brazil

    147. instituto para el desarrollo y la paz amazonica, Tarapoto - región San Martín - Perú

    148. Instituto Vida Nova Integração Social Educação e cidadania, Brazil

    149. Integrated Social Development Effort (ISDE) Bangladesh

    150. International Community of Women living with HIV- Kenya Chapter, Kenya

    151. International-Lawyers.Org Switzerland

    152. IP Unit, Faculty of Law, University of Cape Town, South Africa

    153. ISP Américas - Public Service International, Brazil

    154. IT for Change, India

    155. Its Our Future, New Zealand

    156. Jan Swasthya Abhiyan Rajasthan, India

    157. Just Treatment, United Kingdom

    158. Kamara organic promoter, Rwanda

    159. Kerala Sasthra Sahithya Parishad, India

    160. Knowledge commune, South Korea

    161. Khulumani Support Group, South Africa

    162. Korean Dentists Association for Healthy Society, South Korea

    163. Korean Federation Medical Activist Groups for Health Rights (Association of Korea Doctors for health rights, Association of Physicians for Humanism, Korean Dentist's Association for Healthy Society, Korean Pharmacists for Democratic Society, Solidarity for worker's health), Republic of Korea)

    164. Korean Pharmacists for Democratic Society, South Korea

    165. La Mundial, Spain

    166. Lawyers Collective, India

    167. Les anges du ciel, Afrique Centrale, DRCongo

    168. Look Good Feel Better (LGFB), South Africa

    169. Love Your Nuts (LYN), South Africa

    170. Low Cost Standard Therapeutics, India

    171. Lupus Foundation of South Africa, South Africa

    172. Lymphoedema Association of South Africa (LAOSA), South Africa

    173. Madhyam, India

    174. Malawi Network of Religious Leaders Living with or Personally Affected by HIV and AIDS (MANERELA+), Malawi

    175. Malaysian Food Security And Sovereignty Forum (FKKM), Malaysia

    176. Malaysian Women's Action on Tobacco Control and Health (MyWATCH), Malaysia

    177. Marie Stopes South Africa

    178. Medical Students Association of India

    179. Medico international, Germany

    180. Médicos sin marca Colombia

    181. Medicusmundi, Spain

    182. Men’s Foundation, South Africa

    183. Merebank Activist forum, South Africa

    184. Misión Salud, Colombia

    185. Mopaids Movimento Paulistano de Luta Contra a Aids, Brazil

    186. New Zealand Council of Trade Unions, New Zealand

    187. National Council Against Smoking, South Africa

    188. National Fisheries Solidarity Movement, Sri Lanka

    189. National Oncology Nursing Society of SA (NONSA), South Africa

    190. National Union of Public and General Employees, Canada

    191. National University of Colombia, Colombia

    192. National Working Group on Patent Laws and WTO, India

    193. Nepal Integrated Development Initiatives (NIDI), Nepal

    194. NGO Federation of Nepal, Nepal

    195. NGO's platform of Saida- Lebanon

    196. Nikithemba NPO, South Africa

    197. Non-communicable Disease Alliance Kenya, Kenya

    198. Observatório de Políticas e do Cuidado em Saúde/ Pólo UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    199. Ongd AFRICANDO, Spain

    200. Organisation des Ruraux pour une Agriculture Durable (ORAD), Benin

    201. OTMeds (Observatoire de la transparence dans les politiques du médicament), France

    202. Pancreatic Cancer Network of SA (PanCan), South Africa

    203. Palestinian NGOs Network, Palestine

    204. PAPDA, (Plateforme haïtienne de plaidoyer pour un développement alternative) Haïti

    205. Participatory Ecological Land Use Management Association Eswatini, Swaziland

    206. Participatory Research Action Network (PRAN), Bangladesh

    207. Partnership Network Association, Kyrgyzstan

    208. Pan-African Treatment Access Movement (PATAM), Zimbabwe

    209. People Living With Cancer (PLWC), South Africa

    210. People’s Health Institute, Republic of Korea

    211. People's Health Movement Australia

    212. People's Health Movement Kenya

    213. People's Health Movement Nepal

    214. People's Health Movement South Africa

    215. Phoenix Center for Economics & Informatics Studies-Jordan

    216. Phoenix PLUS, Russia

    217. Phoenix Settlement Trust, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    218. Pink Parasol Project, South Africa

    219. Pink Trees for Pauline (Pink Trees), South Africa

    220. Plataforma No Gracias, Spain

    221. Plataforma Salud y Sanidad Pública Asturias, SPAIN

    222. Pocket Cancer Support, South Africa

    223. Policies for Equitable Access to Health (PEAH), Italy

    224. Policy Analysis and Research of Lesotho, Lesotho

    225. Positive Initiative, Republic of Moldova

    226. Positive Malaysian Treatment Access & Advocacy Group (MTAAG+), Malaysia

    227. Positive response for treatment access, adherence and support foundation, Nigeria

    228. Prayas, India

    229. Presentation Sisters, Wagga Wagga, NSW Australia

    230. Prince MSHIYENI MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, South Africa

    231. Program on Human Rights and the Global Economy, Northeastern U. School of Law, US

    232. Public Citizen, United States

    233. Public Eye, Switzerland

    234. Public Health Association of Australia

    235. Rajasthan vidyut prasaran mazdoor congres intuc, Rajastan, India

    236. Rainbows and Smiles, South Africa

    237. Reach for Recovery (RFR), South Africa

    238. Red Mexicana de acción frente al Libre Comercio (RMALC), Mexico

    239. Rede Brasileira Pela Integração dos Povos (REBRIP), Brazil

    240. Rede jovem Rio mais, Brazil

    241. Religions for Peace South Africa

    242. Republican public association "People PLUS", Belarus

    243. Research Foundation for Science Technology and Ecology, India

    244. Réseau Accès aux Médicaments Essentiels, Burkina Faso

    245. Réseau Mauritanien Pour L’Action Sociale- Mauritanie

    246. Réseau PRODDES, République Démocratique du Congo

    247. Right to Health Action [R2H Action], United States

    248. Sahabat Alam Malaysia, Malaysia

    249. Salud por Derecho, Spain

    250. Salud y Fármacos, United States

    251. Sampada Grameen Mahila Sanstha, India

    252. Samuelson-Glushko Canadian Internet Policy & Public Interest Clinic, Canada

    253. Sanidad española, Spain

    254. Sankalp Rehabilitation Trust, India

    255. Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorders Alliance (SABDA), South Africa

    256. SEARCH Foundation, Australia

    257. SECTION27, South Africa

    258. Sisters of Charity Federation, United States

    259. Social Awareness Service Organisation, India

    260. Social Watch Bénin

    261. Social Watch - Côte d'Ivoire

    262. Social Watch - Philippines

    263. Society of Development and Care, Kenya

    264. Solidarité Agissante pour le Développement Familial SADF, République Démocratique du Congo

    265. Solidarity for Worker’s Health, Republic of Korea

    266. S.O.S CEDIA - Criança e Desenvolvimento Integral De Angola

    267. South African Food Sovereignty Campaign, South Africa

    268. South African Oncology Social Workers’ Forum (SAOSWF) South Africa

    269. Southern and Eastern Africa Trade Information and Negotiations Institute, Uganda

    270. Southern & East African Trade Institute - South Africa (SEATINI), South Africa

    271. Speaking 4 the Planet, Australia

    272. STOPAIDS, United Kingdom

    273. Students for Global Health, United Kingdom

    274. Sukaar Welfare Organization, Pakistan

    275. T1International, United Kingdom

    276. Tax Justice Network Africa, Uganda

    277. TB Proof, South Africa

    278. TEDIC NGO, Paraguay

    279. Terre A Vie, Ouagadougou ; Burkina Faso

    280. The Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Canada

    281. The Global Network of People Living with HIV (GNP+) Netherlands

    282. The Grail in Australia Justice Network, Australia

    283. The Organization of Journalists Against Drugs and Crime in Tanzania

    284. The Sunflower Funds (TSF), South Africa

    285. Think Tank "Medicines, Information and Power" of the National University of Colombia

    286. Third World Network- Africa, Ghana

    287. Trade Justice Pilipinas, Philippines

    288. Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), South Africa

    289. TRANSSMART TRUST, Zimbabwe

    290. Tripla Difesa Onlus, Italy

    291. TRCSS (Transdisciplinary Research Cluster on Sustainability Studies) JNU Jawaharial Nehru University, New Delhi, India

    292. Treatment Action Group, United States

    293. The South African Depression and Anxiety Group (SADAG), South Africa

    294. the South African Federation of Mental Health (SAFMH),

    295. the South African Non-Communicable Diseases Alliance (SANCD Alliance)

    296. the Cancer Alliance including Advocates for Breast Cancer, South Africa

    297. The Stop Stock Outs Project (SSP), South Africa

    298. Trade Justice PEI, Canada

    299. UDK Consultancy, Malawi

    300. ULOA...Uganda land owners association, Uganda

    301. Unions WA, Western Australia

    302. Union fédérale des consommateurs - Que Choisir, France

    303. Vietnam Network of People living with HIV (VNP+), Vietnam

    304. VREDE Foundation for Young People with Cancer (Vrede Foundation) South Africa

    305. War on Want, United Kingdom

    306. Washington Biotechnology Action Council, United States

    307. Wemos, The Netherlands

    308. We Rise and Prosper (WRAP), Uganda

    309. Wings of Hope (WoH) South Africa

    310. Win Without War, United States

    311. Woman Health Philippines

    312. Women Engage for a Common Future – The Netherlands

    313. Women's Coalition Against Cancer, Malawi

    314. World Vision Deutschland e.V.,Germany

    315. Wote Youth Development Projects, Kenya

    316. Yemeni Observatory for Human Rights-Yemen

    317. Zambia Alliance for Agroecology and Biodiversity, Lusaka

    318. Zimbabwe National Network of PLHIV (ZNNP+), Zimbabwe


² Small group of rich nations have bought up more than half the future supply of leading COVID-19 vaccine contenders,    

³ Astra Zeneca vaccine document shows limit of no-profit pledge, Financial Times, 7th October 2020.

 Pharma leaders shoot down WHO voluntary pool for patent rights on Covid-19 products, Pharmalot, 28th May 2020.

 See for example: Pfizer-BioNTech, Regeneron sued for patent infringement with COVID-19 products; Lawsuit reveals intellectual property is holding back production of CEPI- and Gates Foundation-funded COVID- 19 vaccine candidate,; Pandemic intellectual property dispute deepens as Inovio iscountersued, leaving its COVID-19 candidate in limbo,; Patent dispute looms as a major complication for Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine,

 For example, price of remdesivir in the US amounts to US$ 3120 per treatment and licensed generic versions in India cost US$ from 587 to 792 per treatment course6, while estimated minimum cost to manufacture remdesivir with a reasonable profit margin is only US$ 9 per treatment course.

 India and South Africa proposal for WTO waiver from intellectual property protections for COVID-19-related medical technologies, MSF October 2020,